FAQ: When to use et al.?

How do you cite 3 authors in APA?

Citing Works With Three or More Authors

Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year published in all narrative and parenthetical citations APA. Note: The reference entry should list the names of up to 20 authors.

Does Harvard Referencing use et al?

Et al.” is used in Harvard style to indicate that a source has four or more authors. By using “et al.”, writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author.

Can you say Et Al’s?

The grammatically correct way is “Einstein et al.’s paper”, because to indicate possession by a noun phrase in English, the ‘s should be applied to the end of the phrase. I’d recommend using a different wording like “the paper of Einstein et al.” or “Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen’s paper”.

Can you use et al for 3 authors?

MLA useset al.” for works with three or more authors, while Chicago calls for using it with four or more authors. APA format requires that you cite all of the authors at the first mention if there are three, four, or five, and useet al.” afterward.

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How do you cite if there are 2 authors?

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

What means et al?

Et al.” is short for the Latin term “et alia,” meaning “and others.” It is used in academic citations when referring to a source with multiple authors: Hulme et al. (2019) argue that …

How do you use et al in text Harvard referencing?

In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase “et al.” Example citations: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).

What is Harvard referencing style format?

Harvard (Author-Date) style

The Harvard referencing style is another popular style using the author-date system for in-text citations. In-text citation: It consists mainly of the authors’ last name and the year of publication (and page numbers if it is directly quoted) in round brackets placed within the text.

How many authors do you list before et al?

Only when a work has six or more authors should the first in-text citation consist of the first author followed by et al. With five or fewer authors, all the author surnames should be spelled out at first mention.

How do you pluralize et al?

et al.” is generally used for papers with more than two authors. (Note that “et al.” makes the subject plural if the authors are the subject of the sentence rather than the paper, so it is “Smith et al. [1] show” not “shows”.

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How do you cite et al?

List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only “al” should be followed by a period.

Can you use et al for 2 authors?

The Latinate abbreviation “et al.” is short for “et alii,” which means, “and others,” and always refers to people, not objects. So if you had two authors, adding “et al.” would indicate that there were other authors – and since there are no other authors in this case, it is incorrect to use it.

Can I use et al in an email?

Dear and hello are warm, positive words. Et al., the abbreviation of et alii, is about as friendly as a flu shot. They don’t fit well together. The use of et al. is not standard in greetings, so people will stumble over it, wondering whether they missed an important new rule somewhere.

Does APA have a comma before et al?

Remember that there is no comma between the surname and “et al.,” and the period goes only after the “al.” The English translation of “et al.” is “and others.” A helpful table of this rule can be found in APA 7, Table 8.1.

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